Strengthening competition of producers and services in the market requires businesses to work in the full repayment and direct their efforts to the final point, which is inextricably linked to the efficiency of the staff. It is not a secret that the human factor is decisive in shaping the image of the enterprise market , its efficiency and competitiveness. Because scientific problem «professional destruction» and its structure is extremely relevant today
Stress is one of the factors of professional destruction. Stress is the source of many problems of workers . This nonspecific reaction which occurs under the influence of strong shocks and accompanied by a change of protective systems. [2 ]
Stress shows up as a general adaptative syndrome which passes three successive stages in its development:
- reaction of alarm;
- stage of firmness;
- stage of exhaustion.
Workaholism is an illness that kills people and destroys families . It is worth to mark that workaholism is the disease, which is, possible to say, contagious. People, who work with or are next to a workaholic, become alike or have the complex of inferiority and the understated level of solicitations in relation to the labour activity [4, 142-144].
In Ukraine every third Ukrainian comes to work even being ill, got a trauma, or must execute the medical settings. Workaholism does not allow every fifth Ukrainian to use the annual vacation which is one of main reasons of premature death. Such people are sure that when they return from vacation, they will find other worker on their workplace, or are sure that a company will show worse results for the period of their absence.
Another phenomenon which is progressing and which became the subject of research of psychologists and physicians in Ukraine and abroad is called «emotional burning out». The emotional burning out can be related to the third stage of stress. It should be concerned as the professional crisis related to work.
Researches of the psychical burning out are conducted today among public servants, managers, guards, teachers, psychologists-consultants, etc. In the process of comprehensive researches scientists formed essence of burning out and its structure. They came to a conclusion that the psychical burning out should be understood as the state of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion, that is more frequently observed among the workers of social sphere. Scientists are unanimous in the fact that the syndrome consists of three basic components:
- emotional exhaustion – feeling of emotional devastation and chronic fatigue, caused by labour;
- depersonalization - an indifferent attitude toward the labour. Negative attitude not only toward clients, inferiors and guidance but also to work on the whole. Treatment of the living people as of the «labour objects» with whom they conduct the routine operations is observed;
- reductions of professional achievements - the feeling of lack of success, incompetence.
Scientists proved that development of syndrome in many cases is accompanied by the row of psychosomatic reactions: anxiety, irritation, anger, understating of self-appraisal, speed-up palpitation, headache, sleep disturbance, etc. A question appears: will a worker in such a state effectively fulfil his position duties?
Researches haven’t found out connection between the age of worker and development of syndrome. It can arise up even at the beginning of professional activity in consequence of disparity between the requirements of profession and possibilities of a worker. The dependence of syndrome on a sex is also not traced. However, it is worth mentioning that men are anymore inclined to depersonalization, and women are inclined to emotional exhaustion.
The risk to have burning out also depends on that, how much functions that workers execute meet the sex-role orientation. Yes, men are more sensible to influencing of stressors in those situations, especially when it is necessary to show masculine characteristics, such as physical force, restraint, high professional achievements. Women are more sensible to the stress factors at duty, which require sympathy, educating abilities, subordination. Besides a woman , who works, feels the greater overwork in comparison with men-colleagues through additional home duties.
The comparative analysis also showed the display of “burning out” among the representatives of different professional groups, that testifies that the reason of syndrome is not separately taken factor of profession but a complex of factors.
Scientists prove that overworks, extra tasks assist to the development of «burning out».
Thus, among major socially psychological factors which can become reason of the Professional degradation in organization, where a man works, social support (alienation) from the side of colleagues, especially those, who are higher in status, support (indifference) of a manager, wrong staff policy in organization (a man does not correspond the position), implementation of monotonous work for a long time, absence of carrier growth, absence of self-realization, overwork, insufficient stimulation of labour, etc.
All factors enumerated above and many other can be placed among the personal and administrative problems. As, on one hand, everybody is interested in salubrity which depends above all things on the psychological and emotional state. On the other hand, as was marked higher, efficiency of work of enterprise and its competitiveness depend on the psychological and emotional state of personnel. Accordingly, to neutralize or prevent the consequences of stress factors is possible only by the complex of measures, both personal and administrative.
Thus, effective opposition to psychological and emotional stress foresees conscious activity of every worker regarding his health. Health can’t be purchased, it is the main capital of a man and of an organization that he works in. Indisputably, a labour protection needs complex of organizational, ergonomic, psychoprophylactic measures and responsibility from the side of employer and state.
The main thing that a manager has to realize is that the maximal capacity of a man depends on the well-planned operating mode, on the proportional change of labour and rest. Workers, being in the state of chronic fatigue, will never be able to make their company a leader at the market.
- Д. Карнеги. Как вырабатывать уверенность в себе и влиять на людей, выступая публічно: Пер. С англ.., 1994. – 208 с.
- А. Кульчицька. Соціально-психологічна компетентність менеджерів: освітній аспект / Проблеми раціонального використання соціально-економічного та природно-ресурсного потенціалу регіону. Зб. наук. Праць. Випуск Х. Луцьк., 2004, С.97-103
- Н. Лукашевич, В. Торишний. Профессиональное выгорание персонала// ж-л Персонал № 12., 2004, С. – 56
- Семенов А.К., Маслова Е.Л. Психология и этика менеджмента и бизнеса. – М.: Информационно-внедренческий центр «Маркетинг», 1999. – 200 с.