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THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL ISOLATION ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE OF THE INDIVIDUAL

Larin Dmytro
PhD in psychology, Associate Professor of Pedagogy and Psychology, Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman

The conditions of the global pandemic caused by new strains of coronavirus are changing the conditions of social reality. Accordingly, the conditions caused by the pandemic force the individual to become socially isolated by reducing social contacts by switching to alternative remote means.

In psychology, there are two types of social isolation - coercive and non-coercive. Forced isolation occurs when society isolates an individual or group by restricting its freedom. Non-coercive - isolation of an individual or group occurs: 1) at one's own (conviction); 2) through the influence of subjective factors.

The mechanism of social isolation is usually preceded by psychological deprivation - a state that arises as a result of life situations when the subject is not given the opportunity to meet some of his basic (vital) mental needs for a long time, causing personal frustration. Social deprivation is a deviation from the real social norms in society and in different social communities, which reflect a certain degree of isolation of the individual from the social circle and social environments [6].

It should be noted that the concept of "deprivation" in the scientific literature is interpreted differently. D. Hebb reveals it as a specific condition associated with a biologically complete, but mentally deficient environment. I. Bowlby in his monograph "Maternal care and mental health" emphasized that deprivation is a situation in which the subject suffers from a lack of emotional connections, which leads to a number of mental health disorders of varying degrees of stability. R. Spitz and W. Goldfarba mostly emphasized the severe consequences of prolonged complete deprivation, its dramatic course, stability and deep interference in the structure of the personality, which determines the propensity to delinquency or even psychosis [5].

Social deprivation significantly depends on the degree of satisfaction of human needs. More precisely, it arises when needs cannot be met or are met in part, unilaterally, and so on.

Long-term observations of scientists have shown that with behavioral disorders experience serious difficulties in various life situations. These social situations affect the emergence of social deprivation. Such life situations include: a) suspension for various reasons of the already established connection between the subject and his social environment; b) insufficient receipt of social, sensory, sensory stimuli, when the subject developed and lived in conditions of social isolation.

The impact of social isolation on the psyche can have such negative consequences as: anxiety, fear, depression; psychosis, emotional stress. The consequences of social deprivation in the group are manifested in such emotional states as irritability, incontinence, fatigue, inadequate assessment of events, immersion, conflict, which forms reactive behavior [1].

Denis Uhryn is a psychiatrist and associate professor at the University of London. They recently conducted research with colleagues from 10 European and Arab countries to find out exactly how the pandemic affected people's mental well-being. "During the peak of quarantine, which fell in late March-April-early May, the number of people in Britain who needed psychological help reached about a third. This is an unprecedented number, ”says Denis Uhryn [3].

Lonely or socially isolated adults are at increased risk of premature death. The impact of social relationships on mortality can be compared to established risk factors, including physical activity and obesity. However, compared to the understanding of these common risk factors, there is much less knowledge about the effects of loneliness and social isolation in the etiology of cardiovascular disease

In conclusion, it can be argued that social isolation negatively affects the mental health of the individual. Successful adaptation to new conditions is ensured through social contacts.

 

References

  1. "Case examples of isolation" Hawthorne, G., PhD. (2008). Perceived social isolation in a community sample: Its prevalence and correlates with aspects of peoples' lives. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(2), 140-50. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-007-0279-8
  2. Helgason, Á. R.; Adolfsson, J.; Dickman, P.; Fredrikson, M.; Arver, S.; Steineck, G. (1996). Waning sexual function - the most important disease-specific distress for patients with prostate cancer". Br. J. Cancer. 73 (11): 1417–1421. doi:10.1038/bjc.1996.268. PMC 2074472. PMID 8645589
  3. Nachtegaal J, Smit JH, Smits C, Bezemer PD, van Beek JH, Festen JM, Kramer SE (June 2009). "The association between hearing status and psychosocial health before the age of 70 years: results from an internet-based national survey on hearing". Ear and Hearing. 30 (3): 302–12.
  4. Layden EA, Cacioppo JT, Cacioppo S, Cappa SF, Dodich A, Falini A, Canessa N (January 2017). "Perceived social isolation is associated with altered functional connectivity in neural networks associated with tonic alertness and executive control". NeuroImage. 145 (Pt A): 58–73.
  5. Loktieva I. I. Sotsialne vidtorhnennia u konteksti modelei sotsialnoho dobrobutu: mizhnarodne porivniannia [Elektronnyi resurs] / I. I. Loktieva // Ukrainskyi sotsium. – 2021. – Rezhym dostupu do resursu: https://doi.org/10.15407/socium2016.01.019.
  6. Martyshin O. O. Samotnist i sotsialna izoliatsiia yak faktory ryzyku IKhS ta insultu [Elektronnyi resurs] / O. O. Martyshin // Ukrainskyi medychnyi chasopys. – 2017. – Rezhym dostupu do resursu: http://uozhp.org.ua/2017/05/03/samotnist-i-sotsial-na-izolyatsiya-yak-faktori-riziku-ihs-ta-insul-tu/.
  7. Yak cherez pandemiiu liudy zakrylys u svoikh futliarakh, i do choho tut Antarktyda [Elektronnyi resurs]. – 2020. – Rezhym dostupu do resursu: https://ukrainian.voanews.com/a/pandemic-antarctica/5587508.html.
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